Manuals and documents in this section relate to concrete blocks and concrete masonry walling. In particular, MA45 Concrete Masonry Handbook is suitable for students and MA55 Design and Construction of Concrete Masonry Buildings is aimed at assisting engineers, architects and builders with the design and construction of concrete masonry walls.

 For more information, see Frequently Asked Questions on concrete masonry walling

CM01 provides general information about Concrete masonry, its construction as well as general maintenance.
CM01- Concrete Masonry Handbook Download Manual
The information is contained in CM02 is intended primarily for single-leaf concrete masonry houses, but the tables are applicable to other buildings. CM02 contains information on the simplified design of external walls, tabular design of external walls, bracing design, connection details, basement wall details as well as waterproofing recommendations for housing.
CM02 – Concrete Masonry Single – Leaf Masonry Design Manual Download Manual
CM03 provides detailed information on appropriate cleaning methods for concrete masonry, as well as how to diagnose stains and the procedures available for removing them. In addition, CM02 provides general maintenance guidance as well as construction techniques to minimise staining during installation.
CM03 - Cleaning and Maintenance Download Manual
CM04 provides a brief history of concrete masonry manufacturing as well as the current manufacturing process, quality control practises and machinery involved.
CM04 – Concrete Masonry – Manufacture Download Manual
CM06 provides information regarding construction on unreinforced concrete masonry within a residential context. This manual details methodology as well as identification and correction of defective work.
CM06 – Concrete Masonry Unreinforced Concrete Masonry in Residential Construction Download Manual
This guide provides a systematic approach to working safely when conducting masonry walls.
Masonry Wall Safety during Construction Work Download Manual
MA55 is broken up into three sections, (A, B and C). MA55-A, “Concrete Masonry for Buildings” provides information regarding the manufacturing, categorisation and finishes of concrete masonry units. MA55-B, “Design of Concrete Masonry Buildings” provides technical information useful during the designing stage of construction. This manual details specifications including but not limited to, acoustic, fire resistance and loading requirements. MA55-C, “Construction of Concrete Masonry Buildings” illustrates methods and standards involved during construction including mortar estimation, wall configurations as well as cleaning and maintenance procedures. This section of the manual references CAD files supplied for detailing purposes.
MA55_E7-2016 Design and Construction of Concrete Masonry Download Manual
This reference provides the associated reference numbers to different block dimensions.
DS 1 – National Metric Coding System Download Manual
This is a comprehensive guide aiming to assist builders or building owners in identifying and resolving potential issues that may arise when using concrete masonry.
DS 2 - Cleaning Concrete Masonry – Superseded by MA41 Download Manual
This data sheet aims at illustrating how to calculate the loadings for concrete masonry lintels, as well as what block thicknesses will be suited to deal with the relevant load capacities required.
DS 3 – Concrete Masonry Lintels Download Manual
This data sheet provides the calculations necessary to determine the compressive load on concrete masonry within different systems.
DS 4 – Compressive Load Capacity of Concrete Masonry Download Manual
This data sheets provides information on the design and loadings faced by concrete masonry fences built on reinforced concrete piers.
DS 5 – Concrete Masonry Fences Download Manual
This data sheets provides information on the design and loadings faced by concrete masonry fences built on reinforced concrete strip footings.
DS 5Bx – Concrete Masonry Fences built on Strip Footings Download Manual
Reporting structural reliability is important to determine whether structures designed and constructed comply with the BCA. The ABCB Building Codes Committee has expressed interest in reviewing changes in structural reliability resulting from the adoption of new or revised standards or design guides.
DS 6 – Structural Reliability of Australian Standard AS 2870:2011 Residential slabs and footings Download Manual
This factsheet outlines the technical implication of changes occurring in AS 3700 'Masonry Structures' (2018) for structural design of reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures.
AS 3700 (2018) flyer for engineers Download Manual
This factsheet outlines the implication of changes occurring in AS 3700 'Masonry Structures' (2018) for construction of reinforced and unreinforced masonry structures and the implications for builders.
AS 3700 (2018) flyer for builders Download Manual
This factsheet provides step-by-step guidance in identifying the fire resistance level (FRL) of concrete masonry walls.
Factsheet - Identifying the Fire Resistance of Concrete Masonry Walls Download Manual
This fact sheet raises some issues that an engineer may need to consider when advising on the design of a curved masonry wall.
Fact Sheet - Curved Wall Download Manual
This fact sheet raises some issues that an engineer may need to consider when advising on the design of a ‘hit and miss’ concrete block wall.
Fact Sheet - Hit & Miss Download Manual
This fact sheet raises some issues that an engineer may need to consider when advising on the design of concrete block walls laid in a stackbonded pattern.
Fact Sheet - Stackbonding Download Manual
This fact sheet identifies safety issues and standard practices for delivery and storage of concrete masonry on newly-laid concrete slabs. The accompanying checklist may be used to inform your workers and contractors every time concrete blocks are delivered on site.
Fact Sheet - Delivery onto Slabs Download Manual
This fact sheet and accompanying checklist addresses key considerations and regulations around working near overhead power lines.
Fact Sheet - Working near power lines Download Manual
This fact sheet and accompanying checklist outlines the health hazards associated with silica dust as well as key regulations and methods for minimising exposure levels.
Fact Sheet - Silica Safety Download Manual
This fact sheet provides a general guidance for concrete masonry transportation, including pick-up and restraint requirements with reference to the Load Restraint Guide 2018. The accompanying checklists can be used to ensure that your drivers and site operators understand the risks associated with transporting concrete masonry and they have taken the appropriate steps to minimise these risks.
Fact Sheet - Transport Safety Download Manual


The publications below relate to different types of segmental concrete retaining walls - including soil retaining walls, cantilever retaining walls and gravity retaining walls.  The manuals are aimed at assisting architects, engineers and builders in the design and construction of concrete block retaining walls. See also Frequently Asked Questions on Retaining Structures

RW01 provides information useful to the design and usage of reinforced cantilever retaining walls using concrete masonry. This manual provides design data for many different configurations of this walling system. This manual provides many useful calculations related to the serviceability of the wall considering its foundation and external factors including but not limited to earthquakes and sliding.
RW01 – Concrete Masonry – Reinforced Cantilever Retaining Walls Download Manual
RW02 provides information on reinforced soil structures up to 6m high constructed of concrete segmental facing units and geosynthetic grids, with a maximum angle of 15 degrees from vertical. This manual covers considerations to account for during the designing process including but not limited to, walling configurations, appropriate materials, stress mechanics and loading.
RW02 – Concrete Masonry – Reinforced Soil Retaining Walls Download Manual
RW03 details the configuration of gravity retaining walls as well as considerations to be accounted for during its design process.
RW03 – Concrete Masonry – Gravity Retaining Walls Download Manual
TP14 is broken into 2 parts (TP14- 1 and TP14-2) but aims to cover how retaining walls cope with different loading types. TP14-1 provides a comparison of the structural reliability of retaining walls designed to AS4678 to walls created using different codes, in particular, the British Code of practice CP2 and the National Concrete Masonry Association (USA) method of designing reinforced soils. TP14-2 details a number of options for retaining walls capable of withstanding seismic loading, based on the superseded AS1170.4 (1993).
TP14 – Structural Reliability of Retaining Walls Designed to AS4678 for Permanent, Imposed and Seismic Loads Download Manual


Information and guides on concrete segmental paving, permeable paving, concrete flag paving and heavy-duty pavements using concrete segmental pavers.  

Read more about the benefits of concrete segmental paving and Frequently Asked Questions on concrete segmental paving.

PA01 provides general information on the laying variations and limitations of concrete segmental pavers, taking into consideration sit factors such as drainage and public utilities.
PA01 – Concrete Segmental Pavements – Detailing guide Download Manual
PA02 provides information on the application of concrete segmental pavers for use in residential access ways and roads. The manual describes the design process and what kinds of considerations should be made when constructing a residential access way or road; this includes but is not limited to factors such as drainage, laying pattern, materials and traffic estimation.
PA02 – Concrete Segmental Pavements – Design Guide for Residential Access ways and Roads Download Manual
PA03 provides information regarding the minimum requirements and tolerances necessary for pavers and flags to be used as described by AS/NZS 4456 and AS/NZS 4455.2
PA03 – Concrete Segmental Pavements – Specifying Guide Download Manual
PA04 provides information detailing routine and preventive maintenance actions for a range of potential issues when building with concrete segmental pavers.
PA04 – Concrete Segmental Pavements – Maintenance Guide Download Manual
PA05 provides insight to considerations that should be made during design and construction processes utilising concrete flags. This guide covers factors such as traffic estimation, material grading and quality, patterns and public utility considerations.
PA05 – Concrete Flag Pavements – Design and Construction Guide Download Manual
PA06 details advantages for using concrete segmental pavers within industrial contexts, these include but are not limited to car parks, factories and airports.
PA06 – Concrete Segmental Pavements – Industrial Pavement Download Manual
This flyer outlines some of the things you may need to consider if you plan to build your own segmental pavement driveway.
Fact Sheet - Paving a Residential Driveway Download Manual
PE01 provides information on what permeable concrete paving is, potential benefits, as well as when permeable paving can be used. PE 01 provides general technical information illustrating how the system works, specification on materials involved and maintenance.
PE01 – Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements – Design and Construction Download Manual
This manual focuses on the design of pavement undergoing heavy usage.
British Ports Association Port and Heavy Duty Pavement Design Manual Download Manual
This paper provides and overview of the program in development aiming to introduce permeable paving to the American industry.
Development of North American Certificate program for installers of permeable interlocking concrete pavement Download Manual
This paper comparatively assesses permeable paving against traditional paver types, as well as, other alternatives to create a carbon neutral system.
Assessment of Embodied Carbon in Conventional and Permeable Pavements surfaced with Pavers Download Manual
This paper details the potential benefits of combining sustainable design technologies. In this case ground source heat pump technology, as well as permeable pavers.
Combining Permeable Paving with Renewable Energy Devices – Installation, Performance and Future Proposals Download Manual
This paper details the development of software able to design permeable pavements to satisfy the requirements of stormwater management and flood control, to control the quality of water leaving the pavement and, where required, to permit water to be stored and harvested for later re-use.
Development of Design Software for Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements Download Manual
This paper is a discussion addressing the appropriateness of using interlocking concrete blocks to restore aircraft pavements. A comparison is made between the tongue and groove system and the “G-Block” system.
Construction and Rehabilitation of Aircraft Pavements using Concrete Blocks having Mechanical Interlock Download Manual
This paper reports assessments of a range of permeable interlocking concrete pavements that have been in service across Australia for periods of approximately 10 years.
Experience in the Application of Permeable Interlocking Concrete Paving in Australia Download Manual
This paper discusses the possible introduction of a new construction method for bound pavement areas utilising a flexible bound bedding layer containing a blend of bitumen and sand.
Flexible-Bounded Bedding Layer as an Improvement for Concrete Block Pavement Download Manual
This paper provides a comparative study between pervious concrete, two types of permeable interlocking concrete pavement with small-sized aggregate in the joints and having 12.9% and 8.5% open surface area, and concrete grid pavers filled with sand. This study paid attention to the surface runoff volumes of each system and the quality of the water produced from each system.
Hydrologic and Water Quality Evaluation of Four Permeable Pavements in North Carolina, USA Download Manual
This paper presents a pilot study of cement-bound granular material for use as basecourse in permeable pavements.
A Pilot Study of Cement-Treated Basecourses for use in Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavements Download Manual
This paper investigates the water quality produced by coarse graded aggregate permeable paving systems with particular attention paid to hydrocarbons, heavy metals and temperature.
Improvement of Water Quality by Coarse Graded Aggregates in Permeable Pavements Download Manual
This paper provides information on the progression of understanding and the evolution of manufacturing and installation of concrete block paving within the UK.
Back to Basics – Measuring the Progress of Understanding of over 35 years of the use of Concrete Block Paving in the UK Download Manual
This paper describes the development of the structural and hydrological design methodology with an example of its use.
Development of the Permeable Design Pro Permeable Interlocking Concrete Pavement Design System Download Manual
This paper acts to point out the revised points within the manual for interlocking bloack pavement design and construction. The manual itself acts as a comprehensive guide to the use for interlocking block pavement.
Revised Manual for Interlocking Block Pavement Design and Construction Download Manual
This paper details a study aimed at understanding and reducing the heat emissions from interlocking block pavement systems.
Study on Heat Island Mitigation on Interlocking Block Pavement Download Manual
This paper summarizes Swedish and Norwegian course content aimed at education and training for concrete block pavement systems.
Swedish Education and Training on Concrete Block Pavements Download Manual
This paper provides information on the assessment provided by the Japan Interlocking Block Pavement Engineering Association (JIPEA) regarding the smoothness of sidewalks.
Study on Evaluation of Pavement Smoothness on Sidewalk for Pedestrians Download Manual
This paper focuses on the incorporation of research conducted by the Belgian Road Research Center, into standardised guidelines and how this has effected the material selection.
Water Permeable Pavements in Belgium from Research Project to Real Application Download Manual
This paper details the planning process for stormwater management during the renovation of Elmhurst College.
Stormwater Management for Urban Environments Download Manual
The paper investigates storage of water filtered by permeable paving.
The Storage and Protection of Rainfall Resources Stored in Permeable Paving Download Manual
This paper follows the acceptance of permeable paving into common practice within North Carolina.
Working with Regulators to change Permeable Paving Acceptance Download Manual
This paper provides a case study on the shifting dynamic of construction within Eilat, Israel.
The City of Eilat is going for Concrete Block Paving Download Manual
This paper investigates the correlation between water quality obtained from permeable paving and heat provided by GSHP systems.
Water Stored within permeable Paving and the Effect on Ground Source Heat Pump Applications on Water Download Manual
This paper details a trial run of various permeable pavement configurations under heavy load.
Permeable Pavements for Heavily Trafficked Roads – A Full Scale Trial Download Manual
This paper details a computational model dedicated to the analysis of segmented block pavements using finite displacement elements.
Optimized Numerical Tool for the Analysis of Segmented Concrete Block Pavements Download Manual
This paper summarizes the history of small element paving in the Netherlands.
The Powerful Possibilities of Small Element Pavement for Designers of Public Space Download Manual
TP1 aims to address testing, evaluation, design and construction considerations of permeable eco- paving. A critical assessment of permeable eco-paving and review is included in this paper.
TP1 – Permeable Concrete Eco-Paving as best management practice in Australian urban road engineering Download Manual
TP2 aims to determine the appropriateness of concrete flags by comparison of various accelerated trafficking experiments.
TP2 – Accelerated trafficking tests of Concrete Flag Paving Download Manual
TP3 aims to address design considerations when using flag paving within municipal contexts.
TP3 – Concrete flag paving in municipal engineering Download Manual
TP4 aims to illustrate the serviceability and maintenance requirements of concrete segmental paving under heavy industrial conditions.
TP4 – A Survey of Australian container port pavements surfaced with concrete segmental paving Download Manual
TP5 provides a historical context to concrete block paving technology, as well as, present challenges faced within the industry.
TP5 – The challenges of concrete block paving as a mature technology Download Manual
TP6 describes the benefits of using an eco-paving system and provides a case study of eco- pavement usage within a coastal context (Manly, Sydney)
TP6 – Using permeable eco-paving to achieve improved water quality for urban pavements Download Manual
TP7 is an analysis of interlocking mechanisms of concrete block paving over time, with attention paid to shape, joint width and jointing sands.
TP7 – Mechanisms of Paver Interlock Download Manual
TP8 is a case study looking at the performance and maintenance history behind a major concrete segmental paving job
TP8 – King William Rd, Adelaide – Revisited, Australia’s Longest Streetscape Incorporating Concrete Segmental Paving Download Manual
TP9 details the technology around permeable paving within Australia, as well as the need for Australian standards for the system.
TP9 – Technologies and opportunities for permeable segmental paving in Australia Download Manual
TP10 addressed the need for permeable pavers in Australia, its benefits and limitations as well as several case studies within Australia and overseas illustrating the scope and application of permeable pavements.
TP10 – Design of Permeable pavements for Australian conditions Download Manual
TP12 is an assessment of different permeable interlocking concrete pavements that have been in service within Australia for approximately 10 years. Properties and in-service performance has been reviewed resulting in general recommendations.
TP12 – Experience in Applying Permeable Interlocking Concrete Paving in Australia Download Manual
TP13 evaluates the benefits and limitations of permeable paving before investigating new design methodology for permeable pavements specific to Australian environments.
TP13 – The Design, construction and evaluation of permeable pavements in Australia Download Manual


The Guide to Standards and Tolerances published by the Victorian Building Authority is intended to be used by builders and building owners as a convenient reference to the minimum quality of building work expected. The Guide is a valuable tool that will provide guidance for areas of building standards that are not prescribed in legislation, building control and/or policy.

This guide has been developed for use by builders and building owners as a convenient reference for acceptable standards of workmanship in domestic building construction. It is intended to address areas that are not prescribed under legislation or under a domestic building contract.
Guide to Standards and Tolerances 2015 Download Manual

Disclaimer: The Concrete Masonry Association of Australia Limited is a non-profit organisation sponsored by the concrete masonry industry in Australia to provide information on the many uses of concrete masonry products. Since the information provided is intended for general guidance only and in no way replaces the service of professional consultants on particular projects, no liability can be accepted by the Association for its use.